(1)Cothran cites institutionalization, adaptability, elite cohesion, and coercion as other factors essential to regime survival. Dan A. Cothran, Political Stability and Democracy in Mexico: The "Perfect Dictatorship"? (Westport CT: Praeger, 1994), p. 83.

(2)This type of politician is also referred to as a "political technocrat."

(3)See pages 127-131.

(4)It is a closed group insofar as it is a relatively clearly defined group and opportunities for admission to it are not equal.

(5)Mosca, Elements of Political Science, p. 462.

(6)Pareto, The Rise and Fall of the Elites: An Application of Theoretical Sociology (Totowa, NJ: Bedminster Press, 1968), p. 36.

(7)Pareto, Mind and Society, §2485.

(8)S.E. Finer (ed.), Vilfredo Pareto: Sociological Writings. (Totowa, NY: Rowman and Littlefield, 1966), p. 52.

(9)Smith, Labyrinths of Power, p. 166.

(10)Pareto, The Mind and Society, §2482.

(11)Wilfried Gruber, "Career Patterns of Mexico's Political Elite." Western Political Quarterly, 24:3 (1971), p. 481.

(12)Vilfredo Pareto, Sociological Writings (Totowa NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1976 [1966]), p. 275.

(13)Centeno, Democracy within Reason, p. 35.

(14)Roderic A. Camp, The Making of a Government (Tucson, AZ: University of Tucson Press, 1984), pp. 130-140.

(15)Works on this topic include: William E. Akin, Technocracy and the American Dream: The Technocrat Movement, 1900-1941 (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1977); Jack DeSarvo and Stuart Langton (eds.), Citizen Participation in Public Decision-Making (Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1987); Donald Stabile, Prophets of Order: The Rise of the New Class and Socialism in America, (Boston MA: South End Press, 1984).

(16)DeSarvo and Langton, "Citizen Participation and Technocracy," in Citizen Participation in Public Decision-Making, p. 9.

(17)The científicos were a group of intellectuals and professionals who advised Porfirio Díaz. They were disciples of the work of Saint-Simon and Comte, and espoused positivism and the application of scientific to government administration.

(18)Roderic A. Camp, "The Political Technocrat in Mexico and the Survival of the Political System." Latin American Research Review, 20:1(1985), p. 98.

(19)Raymond Vernon's The Dilemma of Mexico's Development (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965) is credited as first recognizing the importance of the political technocrat, especially his chapter "Role of the Técnico in Policy Making in Mexico: A Comparative Study of a Developing Bureaucracy."

(20)Juan D. Lindau, "Schisms in the Mexican Political Elite and the Technocrat/Politician Typology." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 8:2(Summer 1993): 217-235.

(21)Miguel Angel Centeno and Sylvia Maxfield, "The Marriage of Finance and Order: Changes in the Mexican Political Elite." Journal of Latin American Studies 24(February 1992):57-85. However, in a more recent work, Centeno replaced the term technoburócrata with tecnócrata, the equivalent to the political technocrat to bring, perhaps, his terminology on par with other researchers. See Centeno, Democracy Within Reason, See Chapter 5, "The Technocratic Vanguard."

(22)Centeno and Maxfield, p. 61.

(23)Centeno, Democracy Within Reason, p. 105.

(24)Ibid., p. 105.

(25)Centeno and Maxfield, p. 61.

(26)Centeno, Democracy Within Reason, p. 105.

(27)Ibid., p. 105; Centeno and Maxfield, p. 63.

(28)Centeno, Democracy Within Reason, pp. 105-106.


(30)Ibid., pp. 38-41.

(31)Ibid., p. 126.

(32)Centeno and Maxfield, p. 81.

(33)Centeno, Democracy Within Reason, p. 126.

(34)Camp, "The Political Technocrat in Mexico," p. 104.

(35)Centeno, Democracy Within Reason, p. 166.

(36)Susan J. Carroll, "The Recruitment of Women for Cabinet-Level Posts in State Government: A Social Control Perspective." The Social Science Journal, 21:1(January 1984), p. 94.



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