(1)See pages 29-28 in Chapter 1 regarding methodology and definition of cases selected for the database.

(2)This term is denoted with an asterisk (*) in Figure 3-3.

(3)According to Camp, lots were drawn among the winning senators in 1988 to determine who would have to step down in 1991.

(4)Emmy E. Werner, "Women in Congress: 1917-1964," Western Political Quarterly 19:1(March 1966), p. 24.

(5)Oficial mayor is a position that does not have an equivalent in English. This position is rather like a chief of staff of the Secretariat.

(6)The appointments included: Norma Samaniego, Comptroller General; Silvia Hernandez, Tourism; Julia Carabias, Fisheries.

(7)Hernandez Enriquez has been named in a recent scandal because she allegedly never finished the program for the degree she listed in her entry in the Diccionario biográfico del gobierno mexicano. Five other politicians were named in an article which was reproduced in the Usenet Newsgroup soc.culture.mexican.

(8)Roderic A. Camp, Politics in Mexico, (NY: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 140-141.

(9)Camp, Politics in Mexico, pp. 140-141; Judith Adler Hellman, Mexico in Crisis, (NY: Holmes and Meier, 1983), p. 127; Martin C. Needler, Mexican Politics: The Containment of Conflict, (NY: Praeger, 1990), p. 90.

(10)De Silva, "Las mujeres en la élite política de México: 1954-84", p. 280.

(11)During a January 1994 research trip to Mexico, this aphorism was mentioned by several people, both interviewees and other Mexicans who chatted informally with me about women in Mexican politics.

(12)Wilma Rule, "Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women's Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-three Democracies." Western Political Quarterly, 40:1987:477-498.

(13)Werner, "Women in Congress, 1917-1964," p. 29.

(14)Barbara C. Burrell, A Woman's Place is in the House, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994), pp. 8-9.

(15)I have not been able to pinpoint the exact date this Council was established because the pamphlets and other materials from CIM are quite vague with respect to the organization's history.

(16)Consejo para la Integración de la Mujer, Estatuos (PRI: Mexico, 1991), p. 10.

(17)Author's interview with Sofia Valencia Abundis, Mexico City, February 3, 1994.

(18)This group is a sister organization to Ciudadanía para la Democracia (Citizens for Democracy).

(19)Author's interview with Rosa Luz Esteves, Mexico City, February 5, 1994.

(20)Author's interview with Dr. Patricia Galeana Herrera, Mexico City, January 26, 1994.

(21)Peter Smith, Labyrinths of Power (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979), p. 97.

(22)This may be different due to the August 22, 1994 elections for federal deputies and senators, and may also be affected by the cabinet appointments by the new president.

(23)See Chapter 1, pp. 25-28. Elite level positions include: Senator, Deputy (twice), Secretary, Subsecretary, Oficial Mayor, Supreme Court Justice, State Governor, and in the case of the men, President.

(24)Camp, "Women and Political Leadership in Mexico," pp. 424-427.

(25)One study of U.S. legislators covering the same period suggests that the female legislators tended to be slightly older than their male counterparts when first taking office. Paula J. Dubeck, "Women and Access to Political Office: A Comparison of Female and Male Elite Legislators," The Sociological Quarterly, 17(Winter 1976), p. 46.

(26)For ease and time considerations, the birth dates of the politicians were not coded by the actual year, but by generation (ie, 1940-49). Because of this I am not able to precisely determine the change in average age at entry to first high office for the male elites since I do not have the actual data.

(27)Note that these figures are from the author's database and reflect available information. As discussed above in Chapter 1, these figures are quite accurate except for two Chamber of Deputy terms (1961-64; 1973-76) where information for only about half of the individuals was available for inclusion in the data bank in its current form.

(28)DeSilva, "Las mujeres en la élite política de México: 1954-84", pp. 285-286.

(29)The pioneer group consists of women who were elected to the Chamber of Deputies once before 1982 and did not hold any other positions at the elite-level. See discussion in Chapter 1, pp. 26-27.

(30)This total does not include women appointed or elected to positions that would place them in the category of "political elite" during the 1994 elections.

(31)Because she was not elected to that position, she was not coded as a governor in the author's data bank.

(32)Table 3-4 shows the rate of repeat office-holding by age among female elites. "Once" means that the individual held high office one time, whether that be a second-term deputy, a senator or one of the other high positions mentioned earlier.

Repeat rates for Supreme Court Justices are included in this table because those positions are not lifetime appointments, as they are in the United States. Each administration that position was held was coded as a repeat.

(33)Smith, Labyrinths of Power, pp. 239-240.

(34)Smith, Labyrinths of Power, pp. 221-222.


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