(1) In addition to contributing to the body of literature on women in politics, Susan J. Carroll points out that: "Research that focuses on the recruitment of women in a contemporary context may provide considerable insight into the responses of dominant elites during periods of peaceful and gradual accommodation of new social interests." P. 91, "The Recruitment of Women for Cabinet-Level Posts in State Government: A Social Control Perspective." The Social Science Journal 21(1984).

(2) Mezey, "Increasing the Number of Women in Office," pp. 259-260.

(3) See discussion of literature on female political elites in Mexico below.

(4) Maxine Molyneux pioneered the use of these terms, see her article "Mobilization without emancipation? Women's interests, state and revolution in Nicaragua," Feminist Studies 11:2(1985). A more recent article that discusses gender interests in the context of development and planning is by Caroline O.N. Moser, "Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic Gender Needs," World Development 17:11(1989).

(5) Moser, "Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic Gender Needs," pp. 1803-04.

(6) Anne Phillips, Engendering Democracy, (University Park PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991), p. 78.

(7) According to Moser, "Gender Planning in the Third World," this idea forms the underlying rationale of the Women in Development approach adopted by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and has been used to develop creative economic development programs aimed at improving the economic status of women.

(8) Anne Phillips, Engendering Democracy, (University Park PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991), p. 149.

(9) Linda C. Gugin, "The Impact of Political Structure on the Political Power of Women: A Comparison of Britain and the United States." Women and Politics 6:4(Winter 1986)37-55; Pippa Norris, Politics and Sexual Equality: The Comparative Position in Western Democracies. (Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1987); Wilma Rule, "Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women's Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-three Democracies." Western Political Quarterly 40(September 1987), pp. 477-498; Wilma Rule and Joseph F. Zimmerman (eds.), Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. (Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1994).

(10) Welch found that women were more likely to be elected as U.S. Representatives from the North, urban areas and from districts with a higher proportion of foreign-born and black residents. Susan Welch, "Are Women More Liberal Than Men in the U.S. Congress?" Legislative Studies Quarterly X:1(February 1985), p. 129.

(11) Author's interview, February 2, 1994.

(12) Paula J. Dubeck, "Women and Access to Political Office: A Comparison of Female and Male State Legislators." The Sociological Quarterly 17(Winter 1976), p. 51; Elizabeth Holtzman and Shirley Williams, "Women in the Political World: Observations." Pp. 25-33 in Jill K. Conway, Susan Bourque and Joan W. Scott (eds.) Learning About Women: Gender, Politics and Power (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1987), p. 26-27.

(13) Austin TX: The University of Texas Press, 1979.

(14) Elsa Chaney speaking at a conference at the University of Texas, "Women in Contemporary Politics" on April 7, 1995.

(15) Edmond Constantini, "Political Women and Political Ambition: Closing the Gender Gap." American Journal of Political Science 34:3:741-770.

(16) Susan J. Carroll, "Political Elites and Sex Differences in Political Ambition: A Reconsideration." The Journal of Politics 47 (November 1985), p. 1241. In contrast, Janet Clark, Charles D. Hadley and R. Darcy report in "Political Ambition Among Men and Women State Party Leaders." American Politics Quarterly 17:2(April 1989):194-207, that women were just slightly less ambitious than their male counterparts.

(17) See Appendix A.

(18) Blough, William J. "Political Attitudes of Mexican Women," Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, 14(May 1972).

(19) Jane S. Jaquette, "Female Political Participation in Latin America: Raising Feminist Issues." Pp. 243­269 in Lynne B. Iglitzin and Ruth Ross (eds) Women in the World: 1975­1985, The Women's Decade, (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC­Clio Books, 1986).

(20) Gloria Bonder, "The Study of Politics from the Standpoint of Women." International Social Science Journal 35(1983), p. 571.

(21) Jaquette, "Female Political Participation in Latin America: Raising Feminist Issues."

(22) See, for example: J.F. Aviel, "Political Participation of Women in Latin America." Western Political Quarterly 34:1(1981):156­173; Jane S. Jaquette, "Female Political Participation in Latin America." Pp. 55­74 in Lynne B. Iglitzin and Ruth Ross (eds), Women in the World: A Comparative Study, (Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Books, 1976); Steffan W. Schmidt, "Political Participation and Development: Role of Women in Latin America." Journal of International Affairs 30:2(1977):243­260.

(23) Aviel, "Political Participation of Women in Latin America."

(24) Elsa Chaney, Supermadre: Women in Politics in Latin America. (Austin TX: The University of Texas Press, 1979).

(25) Aviel, "Political Participation of Women in Latin America."

(26) Studies of female candidates and politicians in the U.S. have reached similar conclusions: Nikki R. Van Hightower, "The Recruitment of Women for Public Office." American Politics Quarterly 5:3(July 1977), p. 310.

(27) Riddell, Adaljiza Sosa, "Female Political Elites in Mexico: 1974." Pp. 257­267 in Women in the World, edited by Lynne B. Iglitzin and Ruth Ross (Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Books, 1976).

(28) Ibid., p. 264.

(29) Camp, Roderic A. "Women and Political Leadership in Mexico: A Comparative Study of Female and Male Political Elites." Journal of Politics 41(1979):417­441.

(30) DeSilva, Luz de Lourdes, "Las mujeres en la elite política de México: 1954­1984." Pp. 269­308 in Trabajo, poder y sexualidad, edited by Orlandina Oliveira. (Mexico, DF: Colegio de Mexico, Programa Interdisciplinario de Estudios de la Mujer, 1989).

(31) For example, Lynn Stephen, "Women in Mexico's Popular Movements: Survival Strategies Against Ecological and Economic Impoverishment," Latin American Perspectives, 72:19:1(Winter 1992):73-96, and Kathleen Staudt and Carlota Aguilar, "Political Parties, Women Activists' Agendas and Household Relations: Elections on Mexico's Northern Frontier," Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 8:1(Winter 1992):87-106.

(32) Anna Macias, Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 (Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982); Ward M. Morton, Woman Suffrage in Mexico (Gainesville FL: University of Florida Press, 1962); Shirlene Ann Soto, Emergence of the Modern Mexican Woman: Her Participation in the Revolution and the Struggle for Equality (Denver CO: Arden Press Inc., 1990).

(33) ANFER. Participación política de la mujer en México, Siglo XX. (Mexico, DF: Instituto de Capatación Política, 1984).

(34) Griselda Alvarez. Cuesta arriba: memorias de la primera gobernadora. (Mexico, DF: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1992); María Lavalle Urbina, María Lavalle Urbina: su obra. 3 volumes. (Campeche, Mexico: Gobierno del Estado, 1988); María del Carmen Marquez de Romero Aceves. Presencia politica de una mujer bajacaliforniana, (Mexico, DF: Costa­Amic Editores, 1979).

(35) Patricia Galeana de Valadés has edited several volumes of this type, including: Seminario sobre la participación de la mujer en la vida nacional. (Mexico, DF: UNAM, 1989); Universitarias latinoamericanas: liderazgo y desarrollo (Mexico, DF: UNAM, 1990); Antología de mujeres universitarias. (Mexico, DF: UNAM, 1990); La condición de la mujer mexicana, Books 1 and 2, (Mexico, DF: UNAM, 1992).

(36) I have a few such collections of conference speeches, including: Encuentro Nacional de Mujeres Legisladoras. Memoria, Ixtapan de la Sal, October 16-18, 1992. (Mexico, DF: H. Camara de Diputados, LV Legislatura, Instituto de Investigaciones Legislativas, §1993); La mujer ante los nuevos retos de la nación. Cycle of conferences, September 7, 1988. (Mexico, DF: PRI, Coordinacion del Consejo para la Integración de la Mujer, 1989).

(37) Roderic A. Camp. Austin TX: University of Texas Press, 1995.

(38) January interviewees include: Deputy Laura Alicia Garza Galindo (91-94) previously elected as a senator; Deputy Julieta Guevara Batista (91-94), previously elected both as a deputy and senator; Deputy and President of the Chamber of Deputies María de los Angeles Moreno Uriega (91-94), she has previously held both the position of secretary and subsecretary of a cabinet level agency, and was elected as a senator in August 1994; Dr. Patricia Galeana de Valadés, a university professor of 20 years and director of the Matias Romero Institute of Diplomatic Studies; Luz Rosales Esteva, director of Women for Democracy, and also a leader in the affiliated group, Citizens for Democracy; Sofia Valencia, formerly a federal deputy and currently serving on the directory board of the Council for the Integration of Women of the PRI.

(39) Jimenez de Palacios was elected after Baja California became a state, and only served in the third year of the 42nd Legislature, without obtaining another elected position afterward.

(40) Rosa Luz Alegría had previously held the position of Subsecretary of Evaluation in the Secretariat of Programming and Planning from 1976-80, and held the position of Secretary of Tourism from 1980 to 1982.

(41) Susan Gluck Mezey, "Increasing the Number of Women in Office: Does it Matter?" Pp. 255-270 in Elizabeth Adell Cook, Sue Thomas and Clyde Wilcox, The Year of the Woman: Myths and Realities (San Francisco: Westview Press, 1994), p. 264. See also: Beth Reingold, "Concepts of Representation Among Female and Male State Legislators." Legislative Studies Quarterly XVII:4(November 1992), pp. 526-531; Sue Thomas, "The Impact of Women on State Legislative Policies." The Journal of Politics, 53:4(November 1991), p. 972; Sue Thomas, How Women Legislate (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), Chapter 3; Sue Thomas and Susan Welch, "The Impact of Gender on Activities and Priorities of State Legislators." The Western Political Quarterly 44:2(June 1991), pp. 454-455; Linda Witt, Karen M. Paget, Glenna Matthews, Running as a Woman: Gender and Power in American Politics (New York: The Free Press, 1994), pp. 274-276. A much earlier, questionnaire-based study found that policy orientation was less likely to be influenced by sex than other factors, see M. Kent Jennings and Norman Thomas, "Men and Women in Party Elites: Social Roles and Political Resources." Midwest Journal of Political Science XII:4(November 1968), p. 492.


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